UPSC Mains Syllabus 2022 

 May 4, 2022

Aspirants applying for the UPSC exam should be aware of the UPSC full form. The UPSC full form is Union Public Service Commission.The syllabus of the UPSC exam will be available on its website. The UPSC exam pattern has two divisions, the prelims and the mains exam. Aspirants opting for the UPSC exam should have good knowledge of the syllabus.

The UPSC exam is considered the toughest of all the exams and the UPSC Syllabus is considered to be huge to cover. Therefore, the aspirants must make a proper study plan in order to crack the UPSC exam.

No change in the syllabus is marked in the UPSC 2022 syllabus. Aspirants can download the UPSC syllabus from its official website.

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Prelims are the first stage of the UPSC exam, and aspirants have to qualify for the Prelims to appear for the Mains exam. After the candidates clear the Mains exam, selected candidates are called to appear in the Interview round. To ensure that you are totally prepared for the UPSC exam, you must complete the UPSC syllabus and then begin your preparation.

UPSC Syllabus 2022: Overview

The UPSC Syllabus for prelims is divided into Paper 1, consisting of the UPSC Prelims GS Syllabus, and Paper 2, which consists of the UPSC Prelims CSAT Syllabus. UPSC’s Mains Syllabus includes 9 papers, and they are descriptive in nature.

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The Prelims Syllabus is basically created to evaluate candidates’ knowledge of current affairs and aptitude within the given time. The Prelims paper is compulsory to attempt, and it is also the qualifying paper for the UPSC exam. The UPSC mains syllabus Syllabus is created to assess the aspirant’s knowledge of their specialised subject.

UPSC Exam 2022: Mains Syllabus

The Union Public Service Commission releases the list of the selected candidates who will appear for the Mains exam. Aspirants should be thoroughly aware of the Mains UPSC Syllabus. Aspirants should keep in mind that the Main exam is the most important stage for IAS selection. They should also be aware of the UPSC exam pattern.

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PaperSubjectDurationTotal marks
Paper ACompulsory Indian Language3 hours300 (Qualifying)
Paper BEnglish3 hours300 (Qualifying)
Paper IEssay3 hours250
Paper IIGeneral Studies I – Indian Heritage & Culture, History & Geography of the World & Society3 hours250
Paper IIIGeneral Studies II – Governance, Constitution, Welfare Initiatives, Social Justice & International Relations3 hours250
Paper IVGeneral Studies III – Technology, Economic Development, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Security & Disaster Management3 hours250
Paper VGeneral Studies IV – Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude3 hours250
Paper VIOptional Subject – Paper I3 hours250
Paper VIIOptional Subject – Paper II3 hours250
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UPSC Syllabus for Mains Exam: Compulsory Indian Language

The UPSC Syllabus for Compulsory Indian Language papers are only qualifying papers for the UPSC exam. Aspirants should be careful enough and should not score below 25% because the rest of the papers would not be evaluated. The syllabus for the Compulsory Indian Language is given below.

  • One essay question for 100 marks
  • Reading comprehension and related five-six questions for a total of 60 marks
  • Precis writing for 60 marks
  • Translation from English to chosen language for 20 marks
  • Translation from chosen language to English for 20 marks
  • Grammar and basic language usage such as synonyms, sentence correction etc., for a total of 40 marks
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UPSC Syllabus for Mains Exam: Essay

The UPSC mains syllabus does not have any stipulated syllabus for the essay paper for the UPSC exam. As per the Union Public Service Commission, the aspirants are required to write close to the topic with creative ideas, and the writing should be concise.

Candidates will be assigned to write two essays from the given list of topics, and the marks allotted are 250 marks.

UPSC Syllabus for Mains Exam: Paper 1

The detailed UPSC Syllabus for Mains exam Paper 1 is mentioned below. The aspirants are suggested to make proper strategic preparation tips for the UPSC exam as it is considered to be a very tough and vast exam.

  • Indian Culture – Salient aspects of art forms, literature and architecture from ancient to modern times.
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Modern Indian History

  • Significant events, issues and personalities during the middle of the eighteenth century (the 1750s) until the present.
  • Different stages and important contributors and contributions from various parts of the country in the freedom struggle.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganisation within the country.

History of the World

  • Events, forms and effects on society since the 18th century (world wars, the industrial revolution, colonisation, redraw of national boundaries, decolonisation, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism, etc.).


  • Indian society and diversity – salient aspects.
  • Role of women and women’s organisations, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanisation, their problems and remedies.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Effects of globalisation on Indian society.
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  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world, including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world, including India.
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic activity, cyclones etc.
  • Geographical features and their location, changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and polar ice caps), flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
  • Salient features of the world’s physical geography.

UPSC Syllabus for Mains Exam: Paper 2

The detailed UPSC Syllabus for Mains exam Paper 2 is mentioned below.

Indian Constitution

  • Historical underpinnings
  • Evolution and features
  • Amendments and significant provisions
  • Basic structure doctrine
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Structure, organisation and functioning of the executive and the judiciary
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Parliament and State Legislatures

  • Structure and functioning
  • Conduct of business
  • Powers & privileges and issues arising out of these
  • Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions are aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry – the role of NGOs, Self Help Groups, various groups and associations, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and the States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of the vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to the development and management of the social sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
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Role of civil services in a democracy.

International Relations

  • India and its neighbourhood – international relations
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting the Indian interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora
  • Important International institutions, agencies, their structure and mandates

UPSC Syllabus for Mains Exam: Paper 3

The detailed UPSC Syllabus for Mains exam Paper 3 is mentioned below.


  • Indian economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Government budgeting.
  • Inclusive growth and associated issues/challenges.
  • Effects of liberalisation on the economy (post-1991 changes), changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure – energy, ports, roads, airports, railways etc.
  • Investment models (PPP etc.)
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  • Major cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in aid of farmers.
  • Economics of animal rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India – scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; technology missions.
  • Land reforms in India.

Science and Technology

  • Recent developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology.
  • Indigenisation of technology and development of new technology.
  • General awareness in the fields of IT, space, computers, robotics, nanotechnology and biotechnology.
  • Issues relating to intellectual property rights.
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  • Conservation
  • Environmental pollution and degradation
  • Environmental impact assessment

Disaster Management (Laws, Acts etc.)


  • Challenges to internal security (external state and non-state actors).
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges.
  • Basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organised crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandates.

UPSC Syllabus for Mains Exam: Paper 4

The detailed UPSC Syllabus for Mains exam Paper 3 is mentioned below.

Ethics and Human Interface

  • Essence of ethics, determinants and consequences of ethics in human interaction.
  • Dimensions of ethics.
  • Ethics in private and public relationships.
  • Human values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators.
  • Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating moral and ethical values.
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  • Content, structure and function of attitude
  • Influence of attitude on thought and behaviour
  • Relation of attitude to thought and behaviour
  • Moral and political attitudes
  • Social influence and persuasion


  • Aptitude and foundational values of Civil Service
  • Integrity
  • Impartiality and non-partisanship
  • Objectivity
  • Dedication to public service
  • Empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections of the society

Emotional Intelligence

  • Concepts of emotional intelligence
  • Utility and application of emotional intelligence in administration and governance

Contributions of Thinkers and Philosophers

  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world to the concepts of morality

Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration

  • Status and associated problems
  • Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions
  • Laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance
  • Accountability and ethical governance
  • Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance
  • Ethical Issues in international relations and funding
  • Corporate governance
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Probity in Governance

  • Concept of public service
  • The philosophical basis of governance and probity
  • Information sharing and transparency in government
  • Right to Information
  • Codes of ethics
  • Codes of Conduct
  • Citizen’s Charters
  • Work culture
  • Quality of service delivery
  • Utilisation of public funds
  • Challenges of corruption

UPSC Exam 2022: Conclusion

The  UPSC Syllabus is extensive, and the CSE questions demand not just a high level of learning but also the ability to articulate the answers in a logical manner. The UPSC Main Syllabus includes both static and dynamic elements. Candidates should be well aware of the UPSC full-form because it might come as a general question.

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As a result, IAS candidates must keep track of current events and organise them into appropriate papers/headings according to the UPSC Main Syllabus. Candidates should remember the UPSC full form for their general knowledge as it might be asked in question paper.

The Mains exam is a total of 1750 marks (7 papers * 250 marks), and those who pass it advance to the interview stage (UPSC Personality Test). The final merit list of recommended candidates is determined by adding the candidates’ Interview score (out of 275 marks) to their UPSC Mains score.




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